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The Impacts of Entry Programs and Gender on Economic Outcomes

Researchers: Monica Boyd1, Shawn Perron1
Affiliation: University of Toronto1
Keywords: Refugees, entry program, entry class, entry visas, economic outcomes, gender, age, gender inequalities in economic outcomes, economic integration, employment, income, labour force participation, privately sponsored refugees (PSRs), Government Assisted Refugees (GARS), Protected Persons in Canada (PPC), quantitative methodology
Go to: Findings, Graphs,

Summary

The figures on this page are derived from the project: The Labour Market Vulnerabilities of Refugees in Canada: The Impacts of Entry Programs

The study combined data from IRCC’s entry visa information and the 2016 census of population records. Researchers wanted to learn if different refugee groups have different economic outcomes based on their entry program (GAR, PSR, or PPC). The looked at economic outcomes including occupational location and income, as defined by the 2016 census. The researchers also looked at gender differences between and among refugee groups.

The population included in these charts consists of permanent residents admitted to Canada between 1980 and 2014 in one of three refugee categories—Privately Sponsored Refugee (PSR), Government Assisted Refugee (GARs), and Protected Persons in Canada (PPC). Individuals included in the study arrived at age 20 or older, and, at the time of the 2016 Census of Canada, resided in a Census Metropolitan Area (CMA, defined as having a population of 100,000 or more) and were aged 20-64.

To benchmark the results of this study with early findings, immigration characteristics (region of origin, decade of admission), social characteristics (education) and economic outcomes are compared across three main admission categories: economic immigrants, family-class immigrants, and refugee, separately for women and men.

Findings

Graphs

Refugee Entry Status (PSR, GAR, PPC)

Figure 1: Percentage of Men and Women in each Refugee Class (PSRs, GARs, and PPCs)

Figure 2: Six Largest Source Countries by Refugee Class and Gender

Figure 3: Arrival Period by Refugee Class and Gender

Figure 4: Education by Refugee Class and Gender

Figure 5: Percentage of Individuals who Held an Occupation by Refugee Class and Gender

Figure 6: Percentage of Individuals with Lower Skill Occupations by Refugee Class and Gender

Figure 7: Mean 2015 Positive Earnings by Refugee Class and Gender

Figure 1: Percentage of Men and Women in each Refugee Class (PSRs, GARs, and PPCs)

Figure 2: Six Largest Source Countries by Refugee Class and Gender

Figure 3: Arrival Period by Refugee Class and Gender

 

Figure 4: Education by Refugee Class and Gender

 

Figure 5: Percentage of Individuals who Held an Occupation by Refugee Class and Gender

 

Figure 6: Percentage of Individuals with Lower Skill Occupations by Refugee Class and Gender

 

Figure 7: Mean 2015 Positive Earnings by Refugee Class and Gender

 

Graphs – Entry Status (Economic, Family, Refugee)

Figure 8: Entry Class (Econ, Fam, Refugee) by Gender

Figure 9: Place of Birth by Entry Class and Gender

Figure 10: Arrival Period by Entry Class and Gender

Figure 11: Percentage of Individuals who Held an Occupation by Entry Class and Gender

Figure 12: Percentage of Individuals in Lower Skill Occupations by Entry Class and Gender

Figure 13: Mean 2015 Positive Earnings by Entry Class and Gender

Figure 8: Entry Class (Econ, Fam, Refugee) by Gender

Figure 9: Place of Birth by Entry Class and Gender

Figure 10: Arrival Period by Entry Class and Gender

Figure 11: Percentage of Individuals who Held an Occupation by Entry Class and Gender

Figure 12: Percentage of Individuals in Lower Skill Occupations by Entry Class and Gender

Figure 13: Mean 2015 Positive Earnings by Entry Class and Gender

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